are useful in treating urinary tract infections,
but in general are rarely used as single agents.
- The fixed drug
combination of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim) has supplanted many previous sulfonamide
- Examples: sulfisoxazole (Gantrisin) and sulfamethoxazole
(Gantanol) are used almost
exclusive to treat UTI.
- In combination
with phenazopyridine, a urinary tract anesthetic,
sulfonamides are available as Azo Gantrisin and
- sulfadiazine in
combination with pyrimethamine (Daraprim)
(antiprotozoal agent, dihydrofolate reductase
inhibitor) is first-line treatment for acute toxoplasmosis.
(Vantin), a long-acting sulfonamide, is used in
combination with pyrimethamine as a second-line
option for treating malaria.
Non-absorbable drugs: Sulfasalazine (Azulfidine) (salicylazosulfapyridine)
is used in treating ulcerative colitis, enteritis
and other inflammatory bowel disorders. The
antiinflammatory action is due to the release of
salicylate following splitting of sulfasalazine
by intestinal bacteria.
- Topical Agents: Bacterial
conjunctivitis may be treated with sodium
sulfacetamide opthalmic solution/ointment. Sodium
sulfacetamide is an adjunctive drug in treating
trachoma. Mafenide acetate is used in preventing
infection in burn wounds.
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H.F. and Jawetz, E.Sulfonamides,Trimethoprim, and
Quinolones,in Basic and Clinical
Pharmacology,(Katzung, B. G., ed) Appleton-Lange,
1998, p. 761-763.