Factors influencing cancer:
Environmental carcinogens may
be the most important
Chemical carcinogens: implicated
in human and animal cancer--
Constituents in tobacco
Most carcinogens appear mutagenic
based on the Ames test.
Herpes and papilloma group DNA
viruses and type C RNA viruses: implicated in
Oncogenic RNA viruses contain
reverse transcriptase capability, allowing
integration of viral genomic information into the
HTLV-1,a particular human T cell
leukemia virus, appears implicated in oncogenesis
Certain genes appear to cause oncogenic transformation -- oncogenes.
Tumor suppressor genes, when
damaged or lost, may cause neoplastic disease.
Transformed cells proliferate
abnormally, forming local tumors.
Cancer treatment may involve
surgery, radiation, and/or chemotherapy.
about half of patients with cancer can be cured
with drug treatment contributing in about 17% of
Cancer chemotherapy can be curative
even in metastatic disease. For example:
Certain cancers are more resistant
to current treatment (current drug treatment may
be effectively palliative):
effective in combination (may be
More effective if
drugs do not share common mechanisms of
More beneficial if
drugs do not overlap in major toxicities.
Drugs should be in
administered near their maximum
Drugs should be
administered as frequently as possible --
to maximize dose intensity (dose per unit
time) limiting tumor regrowth.
cell kill with each treatment cycle,
using the highest those possible,
repeating doses as frequently as
Salmon, S. E. and Sartorelli, A. C. Cancer
Chemotherapy, in Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, (Katzung,
B. G., ed) Appleton-Lange, 1998, p. 881-911.
Calabresi, P. and Chabner, B.A. Chemotherapy
of Neoplastic Diseases. In, Goodman and Gillman's The
Pharmacologial Basis of Therapeutics,(Hardman, J.G, Limbird,
L.E, Molinoff, P.B., Ruddon, R.W, and Gilman, A.G.,eds)
TheMcGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,1996, pp.1225-1232.
Chabner, B.A., Allegra, C.J, Curt, G.A. and
Calabresi, P. Antineoplastic Agents. In, Goodman and
Gillman's The Pharmacologial Basis of Therapeutics,(Hardman,
J.G, Limbird, L.E, Molinoff, P.B., Ruddon, R.W, and Gilman,
A.G.,eds) TheMcGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,1996, pp.1233-1286.