Autonomic Pharmacology: Introduction

 

Chapter 4:  Autonomic (ANS) Pharmacology: Introduction

Table of Contents

 

Autonomic Nervous System: Anatomical Considerations

Figure by Poul-Erik Paulev, M.D., D.Sci, used with permission

Autonomic and Somatic Innervation

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Autonomic Reflex Arc

 

Autonomic Reflex Arc: First Link

Figure by Poul-Erik Paulev, M.D., D.Sci, used with permission

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CNS and the Autonomic Nervous System

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Lefkowitz, R.J, Hoffman, B.B and Taylor, P. Neurotrasmission: The Autonomic and Somatic Motor Nervous Systems, In, Goodman and Gillman's The Pharmacologial Basis of Therapeutics,(Hardman, J.G, Limbird, L.E, Molinoff, P.B., Ruddon, R.W, and Gilman, A.G.,eds) TheMcGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,1996, pp.107

Sympathetic Nervous System

 

Anatomical Outline

Lefkowitz, R.J, Hoffman, B.B and Taylor, P. Neurotrasmission: The Autonomic and Somatic Motor Nervous Systems, In, Goodman and Gillman's The Pharmacologial Basis of Therapeutics, (Hardman, J.G, Limbird, L.E, Molinoff, P.B., Ruddon, R.W, and Gilman, A.G.,eds) TheMcGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,1996, pp.105-107.

 

Parasympathetic System: Cranial-Sacral Outflow

ANS Neurotransmitters: Effector Organs

Eye
   

Adrenergic

Effects

  Cholinergic
Iris: Radial Muscle N.E., alpha-1 receptor contraction (mydriasis)

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Iris: Sphincter muscle

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contraction (miosis)
Ciliary Muscle N.E., beta2 receptor relaxation (far vision) contraction (near vision)

 

Heart
   

Adrenergic

Effects

  Cholinergic
Sino-atrial (SA) Node beta1; beta2 increase rate decrease rate (vagal)
Atrial muscle beta1, beta2 increased: contractility, conduction velocity decreased: contractility, action potential duration
Atrio-ventricular (AV) node beta1, beta2 increased: automaticity*, conduction velocity decreased conduction velocity; AV block
His-Purkinje System beta1, beta2 increased: automaticity, conduction velocity

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Ventricles beta1, beta2 increased: contractility, conduction velocity, automaticity, ectopic pacemaker small decrease in contractility

Arterioles

 

Adrenergic

Effects

        Cholinergic
Coronary alpha1,2; beta2 constriction;dilatation constriction
Skin/Mucosa alpha 1, 2 constriction dilatation
Skeletal Muscle alpha; beta2 constriction,dilatation dilatation
Cerebral alpha1  slight constriction dilatation
Pulmonary alpha1, beta2 constriction; dilatation dilatation
Abdominal viscera alpha1, beta2 constriction; dilatation -------
Salivary glands alpha1,2 constriction dilatation
Renal alpha 1, 2;beta1,2 constriction;dilatation ---------

Systemic Veins

 

Adrenergic Effects

Cholinergic
systemic veins alpha1,2; beta2 constriction; dilatation

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Lung

   

Adrenergic Effects

Cholinergic
Tracheal and bronchial muscle beta2 Relaxation contraction
Bronchial glands alpha1, beta2 decrease secretion; increased secretion stimulation
 

Kidney

 

Adrenergic Effects

Cholinergic
Renin Secretion alpha1; beta1 decrease; increase -------

Skin

   

Adrenergic Effects

Cholinergic
Pilomotor muscles alpha1 contraction -----
Sweat glands alpha1 localized secretion generalized secretion

Adrenal Medulla

 

Adrenergic Effects

Cholinergic
Adrenal medulla -- ---- Secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine (mainly nicotinic and some muscarinic)

Skeletal Muscle

   

Adrenergic Effects

Cholinergic
Skeletal Muscle beta2 increased: contractility;
glycogenolysis; potassium uptake
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Liver
   

Adrenergic Effects

Cholinergic
Liver alpha1;beta 2 glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis --------

 

Posterior Pituitary

   

Adrenergic Effects

Cholinergic
Posterior Pituitary beta 1 Antidiuretic hormone secretion (ADH) ------------

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Based on Table 6-1: Lefkowitz, R.J, Hoffman, B.B and Taylor, P. Neurotransmission: The Autonomic and Somatic Motor Nervous Systems, In, Goodman and Gillman's The Pharmacologial Basis of Therapeutics, (Hardman, J.G, Limbird, L.E, Molinoff, P.B., Ruddon, R.W, and Gilman, A.G.,eds) TheMcGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,1996, pp.110-111

Lefkowitz, R.J, Hoffman, B.B and Taylor, P. Neurotrasmission: The Autonomic and Somatic Motor Nervous Systems, In, Goodman and Gillman's The Pharmacologial Basis of Therapeutics, (Hardman, J.G, Limbird, L.E, Molinoff, P.B., Ruddon, R.W, and Gilman, A.G.,eds) TheMcGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,1996, pp.108.

Neurotransmitters and the Autonomic Nervous System

Neurotransmission Steps

Cholinergic Neurotransmission

Cholinergic Transmission: Site Differences