Medical Pharmacology Chapter 25:  Pulmonary Pharmacology--Asthma

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1Mechanisms involved in pathology associated with asthma

  • Bradykinin

  • Histamine (as the chloride)


Prostaglandins in Asthma

  • Prostaglandin F2

  • Prostaglandin D2


Arachidonic Acid Pathway (Leukotriene, Prostaglandin, Thromboxane Synthesis



  • Leukotriene C4

  • Leukotriene D4

  • Leukotriene E4

  • Leukotriene B4


Platelet Activating Factor

  • Platelet Activating Factor, 1-alkyl, 2-acetyl phosphatidylcholine


6Structure of the CC-chemokine, RANTES

  • 6"The beta-chemokines include RANTES (Regulated upon Activation, Normal T-cell Expressed and Secreted) as well as macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1) alpha and beta, and interleukin-8...."

  • 6"Here, the structure of RANTES is shown (Chung et al. Biochemistry 34:9307, 1995). It is a small (8 kDa) dimeric protein that is highly basic (pI 9.5) and which is made up of two identical subunits of 68 amino acids each. The two monomers are shown here"



7Human Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor

  • "Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) stimulates the growth and differentiation of hematopoietic precursor cells from various lineages, including granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and eosinophils

  • The overall structure is highly compact and globular with a predominantly hydrophobic core. The main structural feature of rhGM- CSF is a four a-helix bundle, which represents approximately 42% of the structure. The helices are arranged in a left-handed antiparallel bundle with two overhand connections. Within the connections is a two-stranded antiparallel b-sheet. In this ribbon drawing, the N terminus is the upper right-hand corner."--7Ealick SE

  • Ribbon Form: Three-dimensional structure of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

  • Experimental method:  X-ray Diffraction; Protein Data Bank: 


Relationship between Mediators and Response Time Course: Diagram from Reference 2





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